Lawrence Getubig


on view: October 30 – December 29, 2013

reception: Saturday November 16, 4-6pm

Press Release →

Many of the components that drive me as an artist today are the same childhood forces that kept me riveted as a kid.

Western, and more specifically American science fiction and fantasy movies, television shows, cartoons and superhero comic book escapades became regular imports growing up in the Philippines in the 1970s and 80s. I absorbed these almost as fast as they arrived. The narratives became more personal as I integrated my own projected character playing with the action figure toys associated with these western mythologies.

My cardboard cutout series explores a photographic and sculptural approach, referencing the action figure toys I used to play with. From those childhood play sessions, I have become aware that I seldom identified as the hero, but instead projected myself as either an enamored ingénue like in romance comics, as a loyal adoring sidekick, or as the cohort that would get into trouble but eventually rescued by the hero.

Now conscious of my own boyhood wanderlust and yearning for placement in these fictionalized spaces of America and American characters, and the way I identified in those escapist realms, I question how those make-believe roles live on with me in the real world as an adult Filipino American gay man.

Revisiting those narratives, I draft, sculpt and then photograph black cardboard cutout landscapes, including myself, the superheroes and fantasy male lead characters of my youth. These photographs are about examining attitudes, especially mine, regarding desire and American masculinities in these genres of fiction. They are about how I wanted to be amongst those action figures, and much more.

Lawrence Getubig is an artist and photographer based in Alexandria, VA. He received his MFA from The School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in conjunction with Tufts University in 2008, under the mentorship of Jeannie Simms and Bonnie Donohue. He has taught at various higher education institutions, including Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore and Kendall College of Art and Design, Grand Rapids. He is interested in American pop culture, masculinity, cartoon superheroes, science fiction and fantasy and how these function as currencies in global transactions of escapist consumption and identity construction. Getubig was an artist-in-residence at CPW in 2009.

Hillerbrand+Magsamen, "Family Portrait", October 30- December 29, 2013



on view: October 30 – December 29, 2013

reception: November 16, 2013 from 4-6pm

Press Release →

As a collaborative team, we draw upon the rich Fluxus practice of incorporating humor, performance, video and everyday objects.

We expand our personal family life into a contemporary art conversation about family dynamics, suburban life and American consumer excess.This new kind of “suburban fluxus” generates work that documents and re-contextualizes our objects and possessions of self, family and culture, the role of the camera in contemporary art and challenging presumptions of the everyday.

We draw no line between the roles we assume in our lives and our art: we are the photographers and the photographed, and our examination of the idea of Family is dependent on the existence of our own. In the age of YouTube and American Idol, we have all become actors and performers. Reality becomes blurred: are we creating a documentary? A fiction?

The House/hold photograph series are portraits of our family that playfully capture slices of our daily life with surreal viewpoints and dark humor inspired by actual events from bath time to laundry. Born out of our ordinary life and evolved into the extraordinary, the photographs were taken in our home with controlled lighting and composition. We are interested in the identity of family and how that is communicated as middle-class Americans living in a suburban home with two children, a dog and too much stuff. Those things that we have worked so hard to obtain become both the burdens and joys in our lives. Titled after literary and mythological characters, we are referencing historical family stories of the heroism and tragedy such as Ophelia, Hercules, Pandora and Sisyphus. Throughout the House/hold photographs the charged personal narratives of our family speak to the structures of identity politics and consumerism.

Embarking on an “epic adventure” in the video Whole, we creates new levels of interaction, communication and exploration by breaking and cutting holes into our actual home to make a habitrail-like environment where we go nowhere fast. With conscious forethought, we critically examine the media grammar in our popular culture today by applying a “Hollywood” aesthetic to their work with layered dramatic music, visually rich cinematography, and faced paced editing. This “style” is juxtaposed against the performance-based video that expands the idea of the home video to a completely new level.

DIY Love Seat, is a playful an experimental short video that reinterprets our family and its identity. In this dark comedy a woman takes the family couch and cuts out a section with a chainsaw. The husband, in a very deadpan manner, takes duct tape and repairs the couch. This physical act brings them literally closer together but perhaps not emotionally.

ETA is short for “estimated time of arrival.” In this video a couple’s tension is illustrated through the enclosed space of a car as rain and thunder dramatically pour down with an impending doom. The end reveals a constructed reality in a suburban environment that plays on ideas of film, theater and reality within a relationship.

Family Portrait is a 4-channel video installation creating “living portraits” of ourselves and our two children. Each member of our family: Father, Mother, Daughter and Son have a video where they are engaging individually in an action. These actions are given an unexpected twist of surrealism such as the daughter getting sucked up by stuffed animals, the son smashing a stack of plates, the mother walling herself into her closet with bricks and feathers and the father standing idle with a garden hose while the barbeque grill ignites. Amid the 4 suspended screens is a mass of used consumer products filling the space. Big Wheels, lawn furniture, old books, weed wacker, toys, clothes, and the list continues about what we hoard and hold onto in our mountain of stuff in our closets, storage containers and garages.

Hillerbrand+Magsamen have presented their videos in prestigious international film and media festivals including SCOPE Basel, WAND V Stuttgarter Filmwinter, Taiwan International Video Art Exhibition, Ann Arbor Film Festival, Boston Underground Film Festival, LA Freewaves New Media Art Festival, Carnegie Museum of Art, Chicago Underground Film Festival, Dallas Video Festival and New York Underground Film Festival. Well known titles of their work include Lick, Air Hunger, Coffee & Milk, Let’s Get Married, Blender Love and Accumulation.

Their cinematic based installations have been seen in Hong Gah Museum in Taiwan, the Hudson River Museum, Center for Photography at Woodstock, Museum of Fine Art Houston, Light Factory Contemporary Museum of Photography and Film, and Houston Center for Photography. They have been awarded grants from Austin Film Society’s Texas Filmmakers’ Production Fund, Ohio Arts Council, Houston Arts Alliance and a Carol Crow Fellowship from the Houston Center for Photography.

They live and work in Houston, TX with their two children Madeleine and Emmett. Mary Magsamen is the Curator of the micro-cinema, the Aurora Picture Show and Stephan Hillerbrand is an Associate Professor in the Photo/Digital Media Program at the University of Houston.

Selections from the Permanent Print Collection



In harmony with the Center for Photography at Woodstock’s (CPW) mission, to support artists working in photography and related media and engage audiences through opportunities in which creation, discovery, and learning are made possible, CPW maintains and builds a permanent print collection.

The focus of the collection is contemporary voices in photography and related media that CPW has supported, collaborated, and worked with. In recent years the collection has grown to include historic works spanning the late 1800s to modern times so as to increase access and understanding by audiences in our region.

Through the generous gifts of artists and individual donors the collection has grown to include work by: Shelby Lee Adams, Ruth Bernhard, Albert Chong, Fred Cray, Jed Devine, James Fee, Larry Fink, Charles Gatewood, Graciela Iturbide, Kenro Izu, Christopher James, Antonin Kratochvil, Nina Kuo, Elliott Landy, Mary Ellen Mark, Sheila Metzner, Andrea Modica, Bill Owens, Gilles Peress, Sylvia Plachy, Lilo Raymond, Eugene Richards, Stephen Shore, Lorna Simpson, Carlos Somonte, William Wegman, among others. In addition, CPW maintains a unique holding of prints by Woodstock photographers such as Manual Komroff, and the

Gaede/Stiebel Archive of images and audiotapes of the Woodstock Maverick Festivals. CPW’s collection is housed in, archived, and cared for by the Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art at SUNY New Paltz, where it has been held on extended loan since 1996. Today, CPW’s collection features over 1,750 contemporary photographs. This exhibition provides a glimpse into how CPW’s collection has grown since it was established in 1980. The main avenues through which it has grown being our Artist-in-Residence program, Photography Now exhibition acquisition prize, individual donations and works donated from previous exhibitions.


Marcellus Shale Documentary Project


Curated by Laura Domencic

June 29  – August 18, 2013

Press release →

The six photographers of the Marcellus Shale Documentary Project have taken on the responsibility of telling, in the best traditions of social and environmental documentary, the complex story of Marcellus Shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

For the best part of a year, they have traveled across the Commonwealth, meeting people and listening to and recording their stories. They have reached out to farmers, homeowners, and tenants; medical practitioners, engineers, and legal professionals; casual protesters and full-blown activists; to people who feel they have benefited from gas drilling, and to those who feel they have been victimized; to people whose lives have been forever changed, for better and for worse. Each member of the team has brought a different aesthetic, and has chosen a different angle from which to view the subject. They have identified locations that range from intensively drilled to the margins of the gas fields. Together, they offer a compelling narrative that represents, we believe, an honest appraisal of how the arrival of Marcellus Shale drilling has affected communities around the Commonwealth. Marcellus Shale drilling in Pennsylvania has proven itself a deeply divisive phenomenon. Politically and socially, lines have been drawn, between friends and neighbors—sometimes right down the middle of the kitchen table. You are, it seems, either for or against it. But, in clearing away some of the  misinformation from both sides of the debate, the project aims to dispel some of the myths surrounding Marcellus Gas drilling, and at the same time, gives notice to those who claim that this is a process that brings with it no peril.

To learn more about the Marcellus Shale Documentary Project and view more photos by the artists involved, visit

This project would not have been possible were it not for the significant financial and moral support of the following: The Sprout Fund, The Pittsburgh Foundation, The William Penn Foundation, The Heinz Endowments, Josh Whetzel, Nancy Bernstein, and Cathy Raphael.

"Marcellus Shale Documentary Project" curated by Laura Domencic, June 29 - August 18, 2013Noah Addis

"Marcellus Shale Documentary Project" curated by Laura Domencic, June 29 - August 18, 2013Nina Berman

"Marcellus Shale Documentary Project" curated by Laura Domencic, June 29 - August 18, 2013Brian Cohen

"Marcellus Shale Documentary Project" curated by Laura Domencic, June 29 - August 18, 2013Scott Goldsmith

"Marcellus Shale Documentary Project" curated by Laura Domencic, June 29 - August 18, 2013Lynn Johnson

"Marcellus Shale Documentary Project" curated by Laura Domencic, June 29 - August 18, 2013Martha Rial

Jeff Jacobson


April 13 – June 16, 2013

A few days before Christmas, 2004, I was diagnosed with lymphoma. Some present.

After each chemotherapy session I retreated to our home in the Catskills to recuperate. I began photographing around the house as I was too sick to go anywhere else. As my health returned, I began traveling and photographing across America again.

Shortly thereafter, Kodak discontinued production of Kodachrome. I loved Kodachrome. It had helped shape my photographic vision. I filled my refrigerator and wine cooler with the stuff and kept shooting. A few days before Christmas, 2010, I exposed my last roll.

Jeff Jacobson was born in Des Moines, Iowa, in 1946. His imagery has pushed at the edges of the photographic document, regarding the poetic, experimental, and subjective elements of the world around him. With photographs uniquely defined by his use of strobes, long exposure, and the color inherent in Kodachrome, Jacobson relays interpretations of people and landscapes in loose narratives which emphasize emotional content over informational context and atmospheric mood over cohesive subject.

An accomplished photojournalist who prior to becoming a photographer was a lawyer with the American Civil Liberties Union, Jacobson has been a member of such illustrious groups as the Magnum Photo Agency, Archive Pictures, and Redux Pictures. In addition to The Last Roll (Daylight 2013), he has published two previous books, My Fellow Americans, (University of New Mexico Press, 1991) and Melting Point (Nazraeli Press, 2006). His work is in the permanent collections of The Whitney Museum of American Art, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and the Houston Museum of Fine Art, among others. His work has been exhibited at the International Center of Photography and the High Museum of Art, as well as at venues abroad. He has taught workshops internationally as is the recipient of grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and the New York Foundation for the Arts.


juried by Kira Pollack

April 13 – June 16, 2013

Press Release →

In the midst of the fast-paced, deadline-riddled TIME office, taking a day to thoughtfully review the entries to Photography Now 2013 was an inspiring respite.

Drawing more than 265 entries from around the world, the submitted work spread across all disciplines of photography — from studied portraiture and moody documentary to new and varied artistic approaches to conceptual photography.

The review process introduced me to many new voices and signatures. In the end, however, the work that rose to the top often revealed a sense of place – either through compelling environmental portraiture or empty, subtle landscapes.

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Ilona Szwarc’s terrific series American Girls places girls living in the United States with their lifelike dolls, posing the pairs within their personal and familiar environments. Szwarc’s pictures are both strange and revealing, touching on themes of identity and culture. The portraits evoke an element of fantasy; do the girls look like their dolls or do the dolls look like the girls? Robin SchwartzAmelia’s World and Animal Infinity depicts the photographer’s daughter, Amelia, photographed with animals of all varieties. Aiming to capture the stories humans often relate to the animal kingdom, Schwartz’ photographs set animals as participants in these dream-like fables.

Alinka Echeverria’s pictures in her project Becoming South Sudan are illuminating portraits of an emerging South Sudanese national identity. Looking at Echeverria’s portrait of a young schoolgirl in uniform, we see a quiet power and resilience — the same qualities visually expressed both by Schwartz’ daughter and the young girls of Szwarc’s American Girls. Gary Grenell’s portraits, meanwhile, reflect a sense of neighborhood and community. Taken in the five blocks surrounding Green Lake Park in Seattle, Grenell’s work isolates people in their environments, offering the photographer’s personal vision of an area meaningful to him.

Other artists in the exhibition use photography to explore even more personal journeys. Beth Chucker’s series, A Work in Progress documents her own journey with IVF through the viewpoint of the patient. Her quiet, emotional pictures show a different perspective on a topic without a familiar visual identity. Ayala Gazit’s project, Was It a Dream is a search through photography as memory and the action of photographing the “un-photographable.” Gazit’s emotionally charged pictures show a sense of absence and loss of the brother she never met before he committed suicide.

Samantha VanDeman’s project Forgotten Hotels is a poetic approach to documenting abandoned hotel interiors that have sat vacant for ten to thirty years. The images of empty rooms are jarring reminders of a past that has been lost and serve as emotional portraits of place. On the other hand, Noah Addis’ series Future Cities does just the opposite, showing overpopulated growth settlements and unplanned expansion in the world’s major cities. There is an artfulness to his pictures which reveals itself as one begins to notice the distinct hallmarks of civilization sprinkled among his vast landscapes.

Each of these projects represents a poignant look at the distinctly visual minds of these emerging photographers. Their bold voices offer a promising glimpse of what we may come to expect in the future.

– Kira Pollack, 2013
 Director of Photography, TIME Magazine

Kira Pollack is the Director of Photography at TIME Magazine. Since Pollack joined TIME in October 2009, the brand’s photography has been recognized with awards including the World Press Photo of the Year and the Visa D’Or award as Visa Pour I’Image. In March 2011, she established TIME’s photography site LightBox, which is dedicated to the culture of images and provides a forum for conversation on photography. Previously, Pollack was the deputy photo editor for the New York Times Magazine as well as the associate photo editor at The New Yorker. In October 2011, she was named the photo editor of the year at the Lucie Awards.


"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Noah Addis

"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Beth Chucker

"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Alinka Echeverria

"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Ayala Gazit

"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Gary Grenell

"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Robin Schwartz

"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Ilona Szwarc

"Photography Now 2013" juried by Kira Pollack, April 13 - June 16, 2013Samantha VanDeman




Adie Russell


January 12 – March 31, 2013

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curated by Akemi Hiatt

January 12 – March 31, 2013

Press Release →

View the exhibition’s blog →

The exhibition The Web is a Lonely Place, Come Play brings together five artists who produce work within or through the radically democratized “free space” of the web. Through video, performance, photo-based imagery, interactive installation, appropriation, and animations, each artist explores the web as both seductive virtual playground and subversive artistic studio.

The tone of the work in the show oscillates between vulnerability and openness, the private and the public, and the outdated and cutting-edge. Cumulatively, the work probes at the tension inherent in our overwhelming embrace of new media as well our growing awareness of its influence on our culture. Playing to our increasing love of slick, modern technology, the works absorb, enthrall, and inspire as much as they evoke feelings of apprehension or skepticism.

The online realm has provided untapped potential for new creative and conceptual strategies rooted in the movement of Internet art. We can think of Internet art (sometimes called net art, web art, or networked art) as any form of digital artwork created or distributed via the Internet. In many cases, these works circumvent the traditional dominance of the gallery and museum system, drawing upon widely available technologies to reach their audiences. This form of art is often interactive, either directly engaging the viewer/consumer or born out of a creative process that can involve crowd-sourcing and the remixing or re-appropriation of images, video, and text (1).

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Putting New Media Art in the White Box
Many of the pieces in the exhibition do not relate to boundaries existing in the physical realm, nor do they relate to ideas of permanence and preciousness invoked by fine-art as it is shown in galleries or museums. The presentation of web art in galleries or museums poses questions about the fraught relationship between art and commerce, and whether or not that is preserved online. Two of the artists in the exhibition happen to be at the forefront of innovative approaches to the sale of web-based pieces – Petra Cortright by publishing a website in which the monetary value of her videos is determined by an algorithm based on the number of YouTube video views, and Rafaël Rozendaal by transferring domain names to collectors and including their names on the title of the webpage, much as you would credit a public sculpture.

Layers of the Self – A Conscious Performance
The prevalence and power of social networks has made us adept in the art of self-presentation. Personas formed online may be distinct from our ‘real’ identities, as relationships and expectations are increasingly mediated online. Although the public nature of the video work by Petra Cortright and Christopher Baker is in some ways mandated by their chosen medium and artistic process, each artist actively engages themes of voyeurism and the possibilities and pitfalls of self-presentation via the web.

Baker’s immersive installation Hello World! or: How I Learned to Stop Listening and Love the Noise is a video wall comprised of nearly 1,200 video diaries found on the internet. These individuals confide in a potentially massive but imagined audience, with the project addressing the fundamental human desire to be heard. The vulnerability of Baker’s subjects are counter to Cortright’s oddly addictive short films, which mine the territory of webcam performance, clip art, computer graphics, and animated .gifs. Her unabashed performances for the camera along with her physical appearance, invite a kind of voyeurism and allow the films to occupy a space between banality and glamour.

The (Re)Appropriation of Images
Nearly all of works in The Web is a Lonely Place, Come Play reference technologies that we interface with on a daily basis, ranging from stock photography, Google Maps, YouTube, and video games. These tools, some of which might be pegged as “low-brow” are open to the recurring criticisms identified by curator, scholar, and historian Christiane Paul that new media art faces: ‘it’s all about technology’; ‘it doesn’t work’; ‘it belongs in a science museum’; ‘I work on a computer all day – I don’t want to see art on it in my free time’; “I want to look at art – not interact with it’; ‘where are the special effects?’ (2)

Yet, these tools are also being deployed in new and exciting ways – mined for their glitches and unintended possibilities and used to explore new artistic ground.

While Baker employs commonly used platforms like YouTube and Cortright revels in the “low-tech” world of computer graphics, an ongoing project by Jon Rafman entitled 9-eyes began as a Tumblr blog populated with screen-grabs from Google Maps. Collected from the perspective of a street photographer (albeit one who never needs to leave his desk), the scenes are by turns poignant, funny, odd, and terrifying. Some evoke the stark landscapes of FSA photographers (3) or the New Topographics school (4), others seek out surreal moments (such as a tiger strolling across a suburban parking lot), point to errors in Google’s facial-blur technology, or are witness to criminal activity. Most speak to the tension between what is private and what is public, as Rafman freely sources his images and presents them as his own, doubling back both on Google’s intentions as well as that of the individuals photographed.

Also interested in usurping the prescribed uses of daily objects is Kate Steciw, who makes artworks referenced by consumerism and the overabundance of photographs. Her job as a commercial retoucher serves as source material for her manipulated images and photo-based sculptures, in which stock imagery and the capabilities of Photoshop are melded, twisted, and turned, yet outputted as physical objects. Similar to Rafaël Rozendaal, her work describes the emerging tensions of surface versus depth in the highly aesthetic realm of the digital.

An Audience of One…Million (The Virtual Studio)
Making art and existing in such a busy world can be a solitary task, with a single voice at risk of being subsumed by the buzz of a colossal audience. Few artists exemplify the values of web art as much as Rafaël Rozendaal, who employs the screen as a limitless pictorial space, where beauty, accessibility, interactivity, and simple but profound emotions can be explored, occasionally in the form of contained games. Spread out over a vast network of domain names, Rozendaal attracts an audience of over 31 million visits per year.

A nomadic and consistently busy figure, he has lived and worked internationally, opening up his laptop whenever he needs to work and sharing his thoughts and processes via his blog. Considering the historic understanding of the artists’ studio as type of permanent home and sanctuary where artwork is created and which curators, critics and the select few are encouraged to visit, the meaning of this place is significantly altered when all that is required to create and access art is a laptop and a reliable wireless connection. Viewing and being informed about art is more public than it would otherwise be, and pop culture reigns.

Rozendaal’s work is incredibly accessible – the animations invite basic gestures and responses yet rely on the viewer to participate, to come play, in order for the piece to be fully realized. Looping endlessly, they can have a hypnotic effect much like the internet itself. Indeed, his particular aesthetic and way of working is uniquely suited to the inherent qualities of the Internet, as Rozendaal’s work is rooted firmly in the ideal of the web as a free space. The seemingly simple nature of his work becoming its greatest strength when one considers how his content, chosen medium, and relationship to his audience seamlessly intertwine.

The Medium is the Message?
For these artists, and others who share similar practices, the creation of internet-based artwork and the surrounding discourse that molds it are naturally in constant flux, being open to the interconnectivity fueled by online communication and subject to the awesome speed with which new platforms, applications, and hardware is invented. How do web artists navigate this altered relationship to and the expectations of their audiences? Do they attempt a sense of distance that might perhaps be necessary for art-making or, like Baker, Cortright, Rafman, Steciw, and Rozendaal, do they necessarily see everyone and everything as a potential collaborator?

It’s clear that the zeitgeist of our time is marked by an increasing reliance on ( as well as enthusiasm for) modern technology. New forms of communication consciously and subconsciously frame our ways of interacting with each other and the world around us at an ever increasing pace. In considering the tidal wave of content generated by new media, Marshall McLuhan’s famed phrase “the medium is the message” (5) seems more relevant than ever before. As a result it is often difficult (but important) to consider that the technologies that we interface with on a daily basis can provide some sort of deeper understanding of contemporary human existence.

Rather than serving as an overarching survey of web-art today, The Web Is A Lonely Place, Come Play is a presentation of five artists whose practices are fully embedded in the values of this new aesthetic. As intuitive creators they use seemingly simple gestures and tools to explore an uncharted frontier not dissimilar from the ways in which a child uses play to make sense of the larger world – in this case, the limitless possibilities of the web. Yet as attuned cultural critics, adept at subverting the tools at their disposal and aware their social implications, they inform and inspire a closer engagement and understanding of this ever expanding online realm.

– Akemi Hiatt, January 2013

Akemi Hiatt is a photographic artist, arts administrator, and curator living and working in New York’s Hudson Valley. A graduate of NYU’s Gallatin School of Individualized Study, her work has was most recently exhibited in “DIY: Photographers & Books” at the Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, OH) and “bookMARKS” presented by Light Work at the Society for Photographic Education Conference (Syracuse, NY). Her artist books are in the collections of the Indie Photobook Library (Washington, D.C.) and Booklet Library (Tokyo, Japan). Since Fall 2009, she has been the Program Associate at the Center for Photography at Woodstock (CPW) an artist-centered organization founded in 1977 where she works to implement CPW’s year-round program offerings, including exhibitions, artists workspace residencies, workshops, lectures, publication, fellowships, services for artists, and more. In addition to her work at CPW, Hiatt has reviewed portfolios at ICP’s annual Career Day, the Society for Photographic Education, the New England Portfolio Reviews and Bard College, among others. Previous curatorial projects at CPW include “To Feel Authentic”, “Becoming Muses” co-curated with Lindsay Stern, and “Surface Tension” co-curated with Ariel Shanberg.

1 According to Wikipedia, net art is influenced by artistic traditions that include Dadaism, Surrealism, Fluxus, performance art, digital, video and telematics art, among others. As the art form has developed, its historical context has been continually re-visited. Amsterdam-based critic Josephine Bosma defines Internet art as having “five generations”, where the first generation of artists did not work with the Internet proper, but with electronic interconnectivity – precursors to the Internet, such as fax, slow scan television and videotext. These earlier forms, defined more broadly as “networked art”, gave way under the spread of the desktop computer in the 1980s and the advent of the Web in the 1990s. The sheer openness of this new platform invited a much broader spectrum of artists to enter the field – artists who were completely independent from art institutions and often purposely at odds with institutional culture.

2 Christiane Paul, New Media in the White Cube and Beyond, 2008

3 The FSA (Farm Security Administration) is well known for the influence of their photography program which took place from 1935-1944 during the Great Depression. Photographers and writers were hired to report and document the struggles of rural America with the goal of “introducing America to Americans.” Many of the most famous Depression-era photographers were fostered by the FSA project, Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange, and Gordon Parks among them.

4 New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-Altered Landscape was an exhibition curated by William Jenkins at the George Eastman House in January 1975 which included works by Robert Adams, Lewis Baltz, Bernd and Hilla Becher, Frank Gohlke, and Stephen Shore. The exhibition had a ripple effect on the whole medium and genre, not only in the USA, but in Europe too where generations of landscape photographers emulated and are still emulating the spirit and aesthetics of the exhibition. In his introduction to the catalogue, Jenkins defined the common denominator of the show as “a problem of style”, “stylistic anonymity”, an alleged absence of style, stating that “the pictures were stripped of any artistic frills and reduced to an essentially topographic state, conveying substantial amounts of visual information but eschewing entirely the aspects of beauty, emotion and opinion.” Rather, “rigorous purity, deadpan humor and a casual disregard for the importance of the images” prevailed.
5 “The medium is the message” is a phrase coined by Marshall McLuhan meaning that the form of a medium embeds itself in the message, creating a symbiotic relationship by which the medium influences how the message is perceived. The phrase was introduced in his most widely known book, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, published in 1964.


Christopher Baker

Petra Cortright

     Jon Rafman

Rafaël Rozendaal

Kate Steciw